Reading is a learned skill that builds upon itself. Reading often is the best way to improve comprehension and reading speed.
Reading connects people places and times. It builds on personal experiences and learned knowledge.
A reader can improve reading comprehension by:
- Selecting reading material of interest.
- Reading with purpose – reading title page/ copyright and introduction and connecting time and place if given – getting any background available
- Focusing – shuting out negative thinking and distractions
- Looking up new vocabulary and concepts as they come up
A reader can improve reading speed by:
- Understanding that Speed Reading is basically more focused reading. The best way to increase reading speed is to read often with focus and concentration. Continued practice is key.
- Gently trying to read faster than comfortable.
- Grouping Words
- Trying out these free apps/software programs:
Acceleread App – use the free version of this app for an introduction to the process of and skills needed for speed reading.
Spreeder: a free online speed reading software where you can copy your own text and practice reading it with custom speed and grouping (set speed and grouping preference in “settings” under the passage) – I have no experience with the paid version of this program. I think the free version should be fine for practicing. Copy and paste portions of these Newspapers and Magazines The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Scientific American, The Atlantic Monthly, or The New Yorker into Spreeder and read them for speed and comprehension. While reading, determine the purpose, main point and tone of each article. . (You may eventually want to copy and paste the article you select into Spreeder to practice reading it at the speed needed for the ACT.) A reading speed of at least 300 wpm is needed to get through the ACT. This reading speed is also important to get through the large amount of reading that is required in college.
Sandy Aprahamian, Principal, EDNavigators LLC
Having taught hundreds of students how to read and having worked with students up to grade 12 on reading, I have found most high school students to be breaking down on reading at the same place in the process.
Background on Reading:
There are four cueing systems of reading:
- Graphophonic (Sound – the reader must be able to decode letter sounds)
- Syntactic (Structure – the reader must understand the rules of language)
- Semantic (Meaning – the reader must be able to relate material read to material already known)
- Pragmatic (Purpose -the reader must understand the culture and social purpose for which language is used)
Early in elementary school, most students reach success with the first two components of the cueing system. When given an appropriate leveled piece to read, they can “read” it.
For higher level reading, students need to master the semantic and pragmatic cueing systems. This is where middle school and high school students often run in to trouble. These skills take time, practice and exposure to many topics and genres. The semantic cueing system requires background knowledge. In order to find a logical place for the freshly read information in his/her brain, the reader must have a general idea about the topic being presented. The pragmatic cueing system also requires life experience and strong mental processing. The purpose must be clear. Semantic and pragmatic cueing require higher level thinking and the ability to synthesize and evaluate material while reading. To master semantic cueing and pragmatic cueing, students need life experience, intellectual conversation and exposure to various topics. It comes with time and practice.
The best way to become proficient with the semantic and pragmatic cueing systems and to become a better reader in general is to read often.
Middle and high school students, try these reading steps to improve your semantic and pragmatic cueing systems and get more out of your reading
- Understand that the book/article is assigned for a purpose. There is something to be gained by reading it or it would not be assigned reading. – Ask the teacher if the purpose is not clear.
- Look at the copyright page and read any introductory information available (back cover, front flap, introductory blurb…)
- Search the internet for information about the time period when the book or article was written and the time period when the story takes place.
- Do a quick internet search on the author. Get a feel for where the author is coming from physically, mentally and intellectually.
- Download the audio version of the book if the book is a challenge to get through. Try listening to the book while walking. (physical exercise improves brain function – and keeps you alert and awake)
- Pause and think about what is being read. ask yourself… Can you relate to it? Do you agree/disagree with concepts and characters? Is it in line with something you read previously? Do you want to understand more about it? Do you like the writers style?
- Look up unknown vocabulary words and concepts as they come up. Just like in math, in reading missing one concept can lead to a misunderstanding of what lies ahead.
The next challenge in mastering the reading sections of standardized tests (and college level reading) is reading speed. Again, this takes practice. The more someone reads, the faster they get. In my next blog post, I will provide suggestions for increasing reading speed.
Sandy Aprahamian, EDNavigators LLC
Today the College Board released more information about and sample questions for the New SAT.
While all of the details are not yet released, my gut reaction to the New SAT is positive. The New SAT looks like it will address the skills necessary for and relevant to college success.
As a test-prep tutor and educational consultant, I am frequently asked to compare and give educated insight into the SAT and the ACT. A few common questions and answers pertaining to the ACT, the SAT and the New SAT are below.
Will the New SAT be easier than the current SAT?
The buzz amongst high school students is that the new SAT will be easier than the current SAT. In one way, that is true. By removing the wrong answer penalty students do not have to worry about whether or not to guess. Other than that, absolutely not. This test will be difficult for students who are not prepared.
- The essay is significantly more involved than the current SAT essay.
- The reading section will require the student to identify both the correct answer AND why it is correct.
- The math will include more involved word problems.
- Interpretation of science charts and tables will now be included.
Is the New SAT more like the ACT?
Yes, because it is now more achievement based like the ACT.
No, because the format and structure of the two tests differ significantly.
- The ACT essay, like the current SAT essay is a persuasive essay. The New SAT essay will require critical reading, analysis of a persuasive essay and analytical writing.
- The New SAT has a “no calculator” section. The ACT allows calculators for the entire math section.
- The New SAT will measure understanding and interpretation of social studies and history. The ACT includes these subjects but does not include their measure in the test results.
- The New SAT will integrate science into the reading, writing, math sections. The ACT has a separate science section
What do I like about the New SAT?
- It will include more critical reading, something that I believe is essential to success in college.
- It will incorporate real life scenarios in math, making it more relevant to life situations.
- There will be a significant focus on algebra and its application – the foundations of higher level math.
- No calculator will be allowed for portions of the test. I have found that today’s teens rely too much on the calculator.
- Vocabulary tests will be more relevant. Student will analyze the words used and how they affect meaning. – No more memorizing words that will most likely never be used again after the test.
- Science, history and social studies are integrated into the test and knowledge of these subjects is reflected in the score results.
I will post more details about the New SAT as they become available.
Sandy Aprahamian, Principal, Independent Educational Consultant, EDNavigators
Is it okay for my child to listen to the audiobook version of their summer reading assignment?
In short, Yes!
- Some students are audio learners. They comprehend better when hearing the material.
- When a student is overwhelmed by the length of a book, they can see how long the audiobook is and budget time accordingly.
- Pushing play on the audiobook is a way to end procrastination and get started. Often the introductory passage is intriguing enough to make the student want to listen more.
- Hearing new vocabulary words read in context with the correct inflection assists with comprehension.
- Some students comprehend better when moving. With a headset they can walk, listen and learn.
- There is a rewind/repeat button.
- Students who get carsick reading in the car can listen to the audiobook, thus using their idle passenger time productively.
- A well narrated book can inspire the listener to want to hear more books.
- We live in the age of technology. Our children are digital natives. Embrace the opportunities.
- The student can water the lawn AND work on their summer reading simultaneously. Multitasking!
I do suggest that students get the book version of the reading as well. This way they have the option of listening along to the audio while reading or referencing the tangible book later so they can see the words on paper. (multi-sensory learning)
How do I get audiobooks:
- Many audiobooks are available for free through the local library and can be downloaded to the student’s phone
- iTunes sells many audiobooks
- Audible.com sells audiobooks
- If a students purchases an e-book, the reading device they use can usually be set up to read the words aloud
Sandy Aprahamian, Owner, Independent Educational Consultant, EdNavigators